Building Materials

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Author: Hans-Jürgen Schwarz, Heiner Siedel

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Abstract

Damage to natural stone is omnipresent. Typical deterioration patterns resulting from the presence of salts in natural stone are shown below. For a detailed list and description of the various types of deterioration, see ICOMOS-ISCS publication [Verges-Belmin.etal:2008]Author: Vergès-Belmin, Veronique; Anson-Cartwright, Tamara; Bourguignon, Elsa; Bromblet, Philippe; Cassar, Jo Ann; Charola, Elena; DeWitte, Eddy; Delgado-Rodriguez, Jose; Fassina, Vasco; Fitzner, Bernd; Fortier, Laurent; Franzen, Christoph; Garcia de Miguel, José-Maria; Hyslop, Ewan; Klingspor-Rotstein, Marie; Kwiatkowski, Daniel; Krumbein, Wolfgang; Lefèvre, Roger-Alexandre; Maxwell, Ingval; McMillan, Andrew; Michoinova, Dagmar; Nishiura, Tadaretu; Queisser, Andreas; Pallot-Frossard, Isabelle; Scherrer, George W.; Simon, Stefan; Snethlage, Rolf; Tourneur, Francis; Van Hees, Rob; Varti-Matarangas, Myrsini; Warscheid, Tomas; Winterhalter, Kati; Young, David
Publisher: ICOMOS
Title: Illustrated glossary on stone deterioration patterns
Url: http://international.icomos.org/publications/monuments_and_sites/15/index.htm
Year: 2008
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Alveolar Weathering

Examples of alveolar weathering (see [Heckmann:1995]Author: Heckmann
How published: unveröffentlichter Bericht
Title: Untersuchung der Alveolarverwitterung (AV) an der Marienkirche (Marienberg, Sachsen)
Year: 1995
Link to Google Scholar
,[Livingston:1994]Author: Livingston, R. A.
Booktitle: The conservation of monuments in the Mediterranean Basin. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium, Venice, 1994
Editor: Fassina, V. and H, Ott and Zezza, F.
Note: (La conservazione dei monumenti nel bacino del Mediterraneo Atti del 3o Simposio Internazionale, Venezia, 1994, Evaporite minerals are highly soluble salts precipitated by the evaporation of saline solutions such as seawater. Gypsum is a special case because it can he formed on stone either by evaporitic processes or by reaction with sulfur dioxide air pollution. Evaporite minerals Such as thenardite or hexahydrite can be very damaging to stone monuments because of their deliquescence points. which fall within the range of normal swings in relative humidity. The presence of these minerals increases the frequency of gypsum dissolution/rec rysta Ilizat ion cycles. They also modify the structure Of gypsum crusts. Finally. alveolar or honeycomb weathering may be the result of fractional crystallization of evaporite minerals.
Pages: 101-107
Publisher: Soprintendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia
Title: Influence of evaporite minerals on gypsum crusts and alveolar weathering
Year: 1994
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, [Laue.etal:2005]Author: Laue, Steffen; Siedel, Heiner; Hilbert, Georg; Pfefferkorn, Stephan
Journal: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften
Number: 1
Pages: 141-149
Title: Alveolarverwitterung und schichtparalleles Auswittern der Kreidesandsteine an der Kirche von Leuba /Sachsen
Volume: 156
Year: 2005
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and [Siedel:2008]Author: Siedel, Heiner
Booktitle: Salt Weathering on Buildings and Stone Sculptures
Editor: Ottosen, Lisbeth M. and Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge and Larsen , Poul Klenz and Brajer, Isabelle and Bøllingtoft, Peder and Marciniak, Mette and Svane, Maja
Pages: 79-88
Publisher: Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
Title: Salt-induced alveolar weathering of rhyolite tuff on a building: causes and processes
Year: 2008
Key: SWBSS2008
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[Laue.etal:2004]Author: Laue, Steffen; Siedel, Heiner; Pfefferkorn, Stephan
Booktitle: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone
Editor: Kwiatkowski, Daniel and Löfvendahl, Runo
Pages: 211-218
Publisher: ICOMOS
Title: Alveolar (honeycomb) weathering of Cretaceous building sandstone on the church of Leuba (Upper Lusatia,Germany): causes, processes, damages.
Year: 2004
Link to Google Scholar
[Siedel:2010]Author: Siedel, Heiner
Booktitle: Natural Stone Resources for Historical Monuments. Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Editor: Prikryl, R and Torok, A.
Pages: 11-23
Publisher: Geological Society, London
Title: Alveolar weathering of Cretaceous building sandstones on monuments in Saxony, Germany
Url: http://www.tu-dresden.de/biw/geotechnik/geologie/publikationen/download/GSLSP333_Alveolar.pdf
Volume: 333
Year: 2010
Link to Google Scholar
).

Literatur

[Heckmann:1995]Heckmann (1995): Untersuchung der Alveolarverwitterung (AV) an der Marienkirche (Marienberg, Sachsen), unveröffentlichter Bericht, %pages% %url%, %doi%Link to Google Scholar
[Laue.etal:2004]Laue, Steffen; Siedel, Heiner; Pfefferkorn, Stephan (2004): Alveolar (honeycomb) weathering of Cretaceous building sandstone on the church of Leuba (Upper Lusatia,Germany): causes, processes, damages.. In: Kwiatkowski, Daniel; Löfvendahl, Runo (eds.): Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ICOMOS, 211-218, %url%, %doi%Link to Google Scholar
[Laue.etal:2005]Laue, Steffen; Siedel, Heiner; Hilbert, Georg; Pfefferkorn, Stephan (2005): Alveolarverwitterung und schichtparalleles Auswittern der Kreidesandsteine an der Kirche von Leuba /Sachsen. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 156 (1), 141-149, %url%, %doi%Link to Google Scholar
[Livingston:1994]Livingston, R. A. (1994): Influence of evaporite minerals on gypsum crusts and alveolar weathering. In: Fassina, V.; H, Ott; Zezza, F. (eds.): The conservation of monuments in the Mediterranean Basin. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium, Venice, 1994,Soprintendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia 101-107, %url%, %doi%Link to Google Scholar
[Siedel:2008]Siedel, Heiner (2008): Salt-induced alveolar weathering of rhyolite tuff on a building: causes and processes. In: Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Larsen , Poul Klenz; Brajer, Isabelle; Bøllingtoft, Peder; Marciniak, Mette; Svane, Maja (eds.): Salt Weathering on Buildings and Stone Sculptures, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, 79-88, %url%, %doi%Link to Google Scholar
[Siedel:2010]Siedel, Heiner (2010): Alveolar weathering of Cretaceous building sandstones on monuments in Saxony, Germany. In: Prikryl, R; Torok, A. (eds.): Natural Stone Resources for Historical Monuments. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, Geological Society, London, 11-23, Url, 10.1144/SP333.2Link to Google Scholar
[Verges-Belmin.etal:2008]%editor% Vergès-Belmin, Veronique; Anson-Cartwright, Tamara; Bourguignon, Elsa; Bromblet, Philippe; Cassar, Jo Ann; Charola, Elena; DeWitte, Eddy; Delgado-Rodriguez, Jose; Fassina, Vasco; Fitzner, Bernd; Fortier, Laurent; Franzen, Christoph; Garcia de Miguel, José-Maria; Hyslop, Ewan; Klingspor-Rotstein, Marie; Kwiatkowski, Daniel; Krumbein, Wolfgang; Lefèvre, Roger-Alexandre; Maxwell, Ingval; McMillan, Andrew; Michoinova, Dagmar; Nishiura, Tadaretu; Queisser, Andreas; Pallot-Frossard, Isabelle; Scherrer, George W.; Simon, Stefan; Snethlage, Rolf; Tourneur, Francis; Van Hees, Rob; Varti-Matarangas, Myrsini; Warscheid, Tomas; Winterhalter, Kati; Young, David (2008): Illustrated glossary on stone deterioration patterns, %edition%, ICOMOS, %address%, %pages%, Url, %doi%Link to Google Scholar