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Welcome to SaltWiki

SaltWiki is intended to share current specialist information on salts, damages caused by salts and dealing with salt damage. You are welcome to contribute to this joint venture and to collaborate in compiling SaltWiki as an author. Information about the project you find here.

After completing the DFG project, the research group has founded the association SIK who has been committed to update the contents. The Hornemann Institute of the HAWK is responsible for the technical and graphical maintenance of the portal.


Conservation Measures


Salt Data

Deterioration Patterns

Literature and Software



CRYSPOM VIII / 13-15 June 2023 in Ghent (Belgium)

The Biannual International workshop Crystallization in Porous Media CRYSPOM focuses on fundamental research of crystallization in porous materials. It unites researchers from geoengineering, geology, physics, chemistry, mechanics and conservation interested in crystal nucleation, growth and transport in porous media and its related consequences.

The idea is to bring together leading researchers and Ph.D. students to provide for a constructive and open dialogue. Also, it seeks to incite collaborations between theorists, modelists and experimentalists on an international level.

CRYSPOM results from a long-standing tradition. The workshop was founded by Prof. Noushine Shahidzadeh in 2008 in Paris, and subsequently took place in Brienz (Switzerland, 2010), Troia (Portugal, 2012), Amsterdam (The Netherlands, 2014), Toulouse (France, 2016), Hamburg (Germany, 2018) and Pau (France 2021).

The registration and abstract submission for CRYSPOM VIII in Ghent (13th – 15th of June 2023) is NOW OPEN! Deadline for the early bird registration and abstract submission is February 13th 2023. Please go to http://www.cryspom8.ugent.be to find all information regarding the conference and registering and to find the abstract template.


September 11-15, 2023, Kartause Mauerbach near Vienna


Soluble salts are a serious threat to the existence of numerous objects of architectural heritage and cultural assets. The basis for the professional planning of measures is a fundamental understanding of the responsible damage factors and processes, which relates the latest scientific findings to the problems in practice. While specialist conferences and publications largely illuminate partial aspects of the topic, this workshop aims to provide first-hand basic knowledge of the behavior of soluble salts and the practical handling of object-specific analysis data in the concentrated working atmosphere of a three-day event. Although this usually does not mean that the problem has been solved, it is an essential prerequisite for planning suitable measures. The event consists of the 3-day workshop (module 1), which is followed by an all-day lecture event for a larger group of participants (module 2) and a day of excursions in Vienna (module 3). These modules can be booked together or individually.

More informations you will find [here].

SWBSS ASIA 2023 on September 20-22, 2023 in Nara, Japan

SWBSS is the conference series “Salt Weathering of Buildings and Stone Sculptures”, started in 2008. Its previous series were held in Copenhagen (2008), Limassol (2011), Brussel (2014), Potsdam (2017), and Delft (2021). The conference aims at bringing together conservators, restorers, engineers, architects, academics, students and experienced researchers and to contribute thereby to the promotion of research and development within the field of salt weathering of porous materials. An idea of SWBSS ASIA as the conference series to be held in Asian countries was proposed at Potsdam in 2017 and its first meeting, SWBSS ASIA 2023, was announced at Delft in 2021. SWBSS ASIA 2023 will be held at Nara, Japan, on September 20-22, 2023.

Taking into account the very recent world situation, the conference is currently planned to take place in person. However depending on COVID-19 situations, travelling and participation in person might be subjected to difficult restrictions again. In that case, hybrid form will be taken. Even then, you will be welcome to Nara, Japan; online participation is also possible. Please note that the same registration fees apply to in-person and online participation.

The deadline for abstract submission is December 31, 2022. Please submit abstracts as a .docx or .pdf file (please find attached the template for abstract). Abstracts should not exceed 500 words; a maximum of two figures is allowed; and 3 to 5 keywords should be reported. Abstracts should be sent by e-mail to secretariat@swbss-asia-2023.com. Please include the surname of the corresponding author in the name of the file (e.g. “SWBSS ASIA 2023_Surname.docx”) and in the subject of your e-mail (e.g. “SWBSS ASIA 2023 abstract - Surname”).

The conference will be held at Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties (Nara, Japan) on September 20 - 22, 2023. Registration will open in February, 2023, and specific information will follow.

For further information, please visit the conference website https://swbss-asia-2023.com/. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us at secretariat@swbss-asia-2023.com.

SWBSS2021 in Delft

SWBSS 2021 is the 5th edition of the conference series “Salt Weathering of Buildings and Stone Sculptures”, started in 2008. Previous editions were held in Copenhagen (2008), Limassol (2011), Brussel (2014) and Potsdam (2017).

SWBSS2021 will be held at the Delft University of Technology (Delft, The Netherlands) on 22 - 24 September 2021.

The conference aims to bring together conservators, restorers, engineers, architects, academics, students and experienced researchers and to contribute thereby to the promotion of research and development within the field of salt weathering of porous materials.

You will find the conference proceedings [here]


Eggert, G., Saturated salt solutions in showcases: humidity control and pollutant absorption. Heritage Science, 10 (53) (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-022-00689-3

Germinario, L., Oguchi, C.T. Gypsum, mirabilite, and thenardite efflorescences of tuff stone in the underground environment. Environ Earth Sci 81, 242 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-022-10344-6: Link to PDF: https://rdcu.be/cZdVP

Godts, S., Steiger, M., Orr, S.A. et al. Charge balance calculations for mixed salt systems applied to a large dataset from the built environment. Sci Data 9, 324 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-022-01445-9. Link to PDF: https://rdcu.be/cZdWY

Eggert, G., Fischer, A. (2021): The formation of formates: a review of metal formates on heritage objects. Herit Sci 9, 26 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-021-00499-z

Yunxia Shen, Kirsten Linnow and Michael Steiger (2020): Crystallization Behavior and Damage Potential of Na2SO4–NaCl Mixtures in Porous Building Materials: Cryst. Growth Des. 2020, 20, 9, 5974–5985, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.cgd.0c00671

Granneman, S.J.C.; Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J. (2019): Effect of mixed in crystallization modifiers on the resistance of lime mortar against NaCl and Na2SO4 crystallization. Construction and Building Materials , vol.194, S.62-70, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.11.006

Andreotti, S.; Franzoni, E.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Scherer, G.W.; Fabbri, P.; Sassoni, E.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C. (2019): New polymer-based treatments for the prevention of damage by salt crystallization in stone. Materials , 52 (17), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-018-1309-6

Leyla-Cann Sögütoglu, Michael Steiger, Jelle Houben, Daan Biemans, Hartmut R. Fischer, Pim Donkers, Henk Huinink, and Olaf C. G. Adan(2019): Understanding the Hydration Process of Salts: The Impact of a Nucleation Barrier, Cryst. Growth Des., Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/acs.cgd.8b01908, Publication Date (Web): February 14, 2019, https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.cgd.8b01908

Vazquez, P.; Thomachot-Schneider, C.; Mouhoubi, K.; Bodnar, J-L.; Avdelidis, N. P.; Charles, D.; Benavente, D. Sodium sulfate crystallisation monitoring using IR Thermography (2018): Infrared Physics & Technology Volume 89, March 2018, Pages 231-241, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infrared.2018.01.011, http://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/handle/1826/12944

Sousa, Luis; Siegesmund, Siegfriedand Wedekind, Wanja (2018): Salt weathering in granitoids: an overview on the controlling factors. Environmental Earth Sciences, 77 (13), 502, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7669-y

Lubelli, Barbara and Cnudde, Veerle and Diaz-Goncalves, Teresa and Franzoni, Elisa and van Hees, Rob P. J. and Ioannou, Ioannis and Menendez, Beatriz and Nunes, Cristiana and Siedel, Heiner and Stefanidou, Maria and Verges-Belmin, Veronique and Viles, Heather (2018): Towards a more effective and reliable salt crystallization test for porous building materials: state of the art. Materials and Structures, 51 (2), 55, https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-018-1180-5

Yazan Abu Alhassan: The use of sodium ferrocyanide for the removal of salt from stone, exemplified for sandstones from Petra - Jordan,Dissertation, RWTH Aachen University, 2018

Proceedings of SWBSS 2017: Fourth International Conference on Salt Weathering of Buildings and Stone Sculptures. University of Applied Sciences, Potsdam, Germany, 20-22 September 2017, edited by Steffen Laue

J. Flatt, Nevin Aly Mohameda,b, Francesco Carusoc, Hannelore Derluynd, Julie Desarnaude, Barbara Lubellif, Rosa Maria Espinosa‐Marzalg, Leo Pelh, Carlos Rodriguez‐Navarroi, George W. Schererj, Noushine Shahidzadehk, Michael Steigeer (2017): Predicting salt damage in practice: a theoretical insight into laboratory tests. In: RILEM Technical Letters (2017) 2: 108‐118,DOI: https://doi.org/10.21809/rilemtechlett.2017.41, Link to PDF: file:2017 Flatt laboratorytests.pdf


If you are interested in writing an article or making an English version of an article already published in the German SalzWiki please contact us. Especially native speakers are invited to join the SaltWiki-Team.