Difference between revisions of "Alveolar Weathering"

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== Literature ==
 
== Literature ==
  
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[[Category:Alveolarweathering]] [[Category:Siedel,Heiner]] [[Category:R-CBlaeuer]] [[Category:inProgress]]
 
[[Category:Alveolarweathering]] [[Category:Siedel,Heiner]] [[Category:R-CBlaeuer]] [[Category:inProgress]]

Revision as of 15:34, 23 April 2012

Author: Heiner Siedel


English Version by Sandra Leithäuser

back to building Materials

Salts and Alveolar Weathering

Alveolization is also known as honeycomb weathering and was first described by natural scientists of the 19th century, on natural outcrops of rocks. These bizarre, but often regularly composed shapes consist of deeply eroded cavities (alveoli), ranging from centimeters to decimeters. The alveoli are separated by walls or ridges of stone, which have been unaffected or nearly unaffected by weathering. The phenomenon of alveolization has attracted the interest of Geo- Scientists very early on, wishing to investigate the question of its origin. In Germany the classical investigation areas have always been the Palatine Forest (Pfälzer Wald) [Haeberle:1915]Title: Die gitter-, netz- und wabenförmige Verwitterung der Sandsteine
Author: Häberle, Daniel
Link to Google Scholar
and the Elbe Sandstone Mountains (Kreidesandstein, [Beyer:1911]Title: Alaun und Gips als Mineralneubildungen und als Ursachen der chemischen Verwitterung in den Quadersandsteinen des sächsischen Kreidegebiets
Author: Beyer, O.
Link to Google Scholar
). As early as 1915 Häberle [Haeberle:1915]Title: Die gitter-, netz- und wabenförmige Verwitterung der Sandsteine
Author: Häberle, Daniel
Link to Google Scholar
points to examples of honeycombe weathering on building stone.

Figure 1: Alveolar weathering on cretaceaus sandstone , Rauenstein, Saxon Switzerland, Germany
Figure 2: Alveolar weathering on the limestone of Caen, church St. Pierre in Caen, Normandie, France

A possible cause for the development of the reliefs is chemical decomposition [Beyer:1911]Title: Alaun und Gips als Mineralneubildungen und als Ursachen der chemischen Verwitterung in den Quadersandsteinen des sächsischen Kreidegebiets
Author: Beyer, O.
Link to Google Scholar
, [Haeberle:1915]Title: Die gitter-, netz- und wabenförmige Verwitterung der Sandsteine
Author: Häberle, Daniel
Link to Google Scholar
. Otto Beyer, who names the salt minerals alum and gypsum as a cause for the weathering of sandstone in the title of his paper, attaches great importance to salt induced weathering in the results of his investigations. He sees the different effects of the more readily soluble alum and the poorly soluble, often crust forming salt gypsum as a cause for the development of cavity and honeycombe shaped structures on sandstone rocks. While Alum crystallizes in the pores of the sandstone, causes blasting pressure and destroys the fabric, gypsum blocks up the pores, “fills drip holes and fissures and covers seepage points with a crust, or bulges over them, and achieves with the hereby developed strong ribs, rinds and other cementations, the conservation of the sandstone”([Beyer:1911]Title: Alaun und Gips als Mineralneubildungen und als Ursachen der chemischen Verwitterung in den Quadersandsteinen des sächsischen Kreidegebiets
Author: Beyer, O.
Link to Google Scholar
, S. 466).

Soluble salts in alveoli have later been detected on many other outcrops in the world, and suggestions have been made that they advance the weathering process. For instance in coastal, but also in arid regions, chlorides often appear in such structures. Alongside, other influencing factors like the induration of the surface are still being discussed, e.g. due to local precipitation of reworked silicic acid on the surface of the rock. In nature such silica weathering processes on rock surfaces proceed over a very long period of time. On constructions several kinds of building stones are prone to alveolar weathering. Amongst these are particularly porous sedimentary rocks (specific sandstones, limestones and tuff). Often visible by the naked eye, the inhomogeneity in the fabric of natural stone is effectively causing the weathering. Hereby, the structure of the sedimentary layers, alien inclusions, bioturbations or the like, can cause- through weathering- relief development at differing speeds. The structurally influencing factors relating to the specific stone, which are responsible for the formation of alveoli, are generally displayed in the developed weathering patterns. Causal differences in the micro structure can be determined quantitatively, in the contents of minerals with a low resistance to weathering, or in the pore size distribution. These differences generate the preconditions for a relief to develop on a previously level surface. An essential role for the progress of weathering in nearly all investigated cases, is played by salts. Salts are usually introduced into the stone via a contaminated environment and by reactions with mortar.


Recent investigations on the appearance of alveolization, explored the kind of salts present and their exact spatial distribution in alveoli and the adjoining walls ([Siedel:2008]Title: Salt-induced alveolar weathering of rhyolite tuff on a building: causes and processes
Author: Siedel, Heiner
Link to Google Scholar
[Siedel:2010]Title: Alveolar weathering of Cretaceous building sandstones on monuments in Saxony, Germany
Author: Siedel, Heiner
Link to Google Scholar
). These investigations showed the interaction of readily and poorly soluble salts in sandstones and tuffs. To begin with local erosion caused minor differences in relief, due to fossil structures, or diagenetically on sandstone in conjunction with ferrous mineral impregnated stone sections, or due to lapilli inclusions in tuff. During the investigation, salts with differing solubility magnesium sulfate and gypsum, were introduced into the depressions in the course of repeated moistening and drying events. The poorly soluble gypsum stayed mainly near the surface of the stone. In contrast, magnesium sulfates, still in solution on slowly drying surfaces, concentrated underneath the surface of depressions, that remained humid for longer.

The high concentration of salts in the depressions causes crystallization on further drying, and on dehumidifying it leads to the hydration of salts and to bursting of grains from the stone´s surface. This process enlarges the initially small depression. Often loose accumulations of burst stone grains and salts can be found inside larger cavities. They repeatedly reappear after removal. Now the alveoli deepen and connect with neighboring cavities, because walls or ridges are eroded. The gypsum encrusted surface, meanwhile, remains stable due to a higher resistance to weathering. The decay pattern of advanced alveolization has been established through detailed investigations on facades. The findings are in accordance with the suggestions made by Beyer in 1911, based on his observations about the combined effect of readily and poorly soluble salts on natural outcrops.

Further detailed investigations, considering other case studies are necessary in order to fully understand the dynamic of weathering and the influencing factors of alveoli formation on building stone.

Literature

[Beyer:1911]Beyer, O. (1911): Alaun und Gips als Mineralneubildungen und als Ursachen der chemischen Verwitterung in den Quadersandsteinen des sächsischen Kreidegebiets. Zt. dt. geol. Ges., 63 (4), 429-467Link to Google Scholar
[Haeberle:1915]Häberle, Daniel (1915): Die gitter-, netz- und wabenförmige Verwitterung der Sandsteine. Geologische Rundschau, 6 (4), 264-285, Url, 10.1007/BF01797404Link to Google Scholar
[Huinink.etal:2004]Huinink, H. P.; Pel, L.; Kopinga, K. (2004): Simulating the growth of tafoni. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 29 (10), 1225--1233, Url, 10.1002/esp.1087Link to Google Scholar
[Pauly:1976]Pauly, J.-P. (1976): Le Rôle des chlorures dans les maladies alvéolaire et desquamante. In: Skoulikidis, T. (eds.): Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Deterioration of Building Stones, Athens 1976,Universite Technique Nationale 79-91Link to Google Scholar
[Pauly:1976a]Pauly, Jean-Pierre (1976): Maladie Alveolaire Conditions de Formation et d'Evolution. In: Rossi-Manaresi, Raffaella (eds.): The Conservation of Stone I, Proceedings of the International Symposium, Bologna, June 1975,Centro per la conservazione delle sculture all'aperto, Bologna 55-80Link to Google Scholar
[Siedel:2008]Siedel, Heiner (2008): Salt-induced alveolar weathering of rhyolite tuff on a building: causes and processes. In: Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Larsen , Poul Klenz; Brajer, Isabelle; Bøllingtoft, Peder; Marciniak, Mette; Svane, Maja (eds.): Salt Weathering on Buildings and Stone Sculptures, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, 79-88Link to Google ScholarFulltext link
[Siedel:2010]Siedel, Heiner (2010): Alveolar weathering of Cretaceous building sandstones on monuments in Saxony, Germany. In: Prikryl, R; Torok, A. (eds.): Natural Stone Resources for Historical Monuments. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, Geological Society, London, 11-23, Url, 10.1144/SP333.2Link to Google Scholar