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Welcome to SaltWiki

SaltWiki is an editorially maintained specialist website with German and English information on the following topics:

  • Salts
  • Damage caused by salts
  • Dealing with salt damage

Among other things, this information will help you to understand expert opinions or to plan measures.

Become an author and share your knowledge or support this worldwide transfer of knowledge by becoming a member of the Salze im Kulturgut (SIK) association, which is a research association.

A support of the Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) enabled the realization at the Hornemann Institute of the HAWK in Hildesheim until 2012.


Conservation Measures


Salt Data

Deterioration Patterns

Literature and Software

Theme of the quarter

Abb.1: Here, saturated salt solutions are still used for climate control: Exhibition of sensitive glassware at the Veste Coburg, bottom compartment for salt solutions opened for the photo. © Heiner Grieb, Veste

Salts in display cases[edit]

Brief insight: The display cases in museums usually have a defined relative humidity in order to create optimal climatic conditions for exhibited objects. This can be influenced by various methods. These include electrical air conditioning devices, humidity buffers but also saturated salt solutions.

Eggert, G.: Saturated salt solutions in showcases: humidity control and pollutant absorption. Heritage Science, 10 (53) (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-022-00689-3
Waller C.: Materialien und Geräte zur Klimatisierung von Vitrinen und Depotschränken: 2.4 Salzlösungen,(2022) http://www.cwaller.de/deutsch.htm?teil2.htm~information

Looking for authors : Do you have any experience in the field of salts in display cases? If so, you can write a text or add new information and send it to info.salzwiki@gmail.com. We will then complete the article so it is available for all of our users!


SWBSS ASIA 2023 on September 20-22, 2023 in Nara, Japan[edit]

SWBSS is the conference series “Salt Weathering of Buildings and Stone Sculptures”, started in 2008. The conference aims at bringing together conservators, restorers, engineers, architects, academics, students and experienced researchers and to contribute thereby to the promotion of research and development within the field of salt weathering of porous materials.

Its previous series were held in Copenhagen (2008), Limassol (2011), Brussel (2014), Potsdam (2017), and Delft (2021). An idea of SWBSS ASIA as the conference series to be held in Asian countries was proposed at Potsdam in 2017 and its first meeting, SWBSS ASIA 2023, was announced at Delft in 2021. SWBSS ASIA 2023 was held at Nara, Japan, on September 20-22, 2023.

The proceedings of the conference you will find [here].


Dong-Mei Chen; Kun Yuan; Xian-Ming Zhang (2024): Morphology transformation of Na2SO4 from prism into dendrite enhanced desalination efficiency in sandstone by biodegradable polycarboxylate modifiers. In: Construction and Building Materials, 411 (), 134513, Webadresse, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.134513

Amelie Stahlbuhk; Michael Steiger (2024): Damage potential and supersaturation of nitrates relevant to salt damage of porous building materials. In: Construction and Building Materials, 419 (), 135413, Webadresse, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2024.135413

Encarnación Ruiz-Agudo; Aurelia Ibañez-Velasco; Cristina Ruiz-Agudo; Sarah Bonilla-Correa; Kerstin Elert; Carlos Rodríguez-Navarro (2024): Damage of porous building stone by sodium carbonate crystallization and the effect of crystallization modifiers. In: Construction and Building Materials, 411 (), 134591, Webadresse, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.134591

Masaru Abuku and Nobumitsu Takatori (Eds) (2023): Proceedings of SWBSS ASIA 2023. First International Conference in Asia on Salt Weathering of Buildings and Stone Sculptures, Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties Nara, Japan September 20-22, 2023, link to the proceedings

Godts, S., Orr, S.A., Steiger, M. et al. Salt mixtures in stone weathering. Sci Rep 13, 13306 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-40590-y

Godts, S.; Steiger, M.; Orr, S.A.; Stahlbuhk, A.; Desarnaud, J.; De Clercq, H.; Cnudde, V.; De Kock, T. Modeling Salt Behavior with ECOS/RUNSALT: Terminology, Methodology, Limitations, and Solutions. Heritage ( 2022) 5, 3648-3663. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage5040190

Lubelli, B., Rörig-Daalgard, I., Aguilar, A.M. et al. Recommendation of RILEM TC 271-ASC: New accelerated test procedure for the assessment of resistance of natural stone and fired-clay brick units against salt crystallization. Mater Struct 56, 101 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-023-02158-0

Eggert, G.: Saturated salt solutions in showcases: humidity control and pollutant absorption. Heritage Science, 10 (53) (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-022-00689-3

Germinario, L.; Oguchi, C.T.: Gypsum, mirabilite, and thenardite efflorescences of tuff stone in the underground environment. Environ Earth Sci 81, 242 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-022-10344-6: Link to PDF: https://rdcu.be/cZdVP

Godts, S.; Steiger, M.; Orr, S.A. et al.: Charge balance calculations for mixed salt systems applied to a large dataset from the built environment. Sci Data 9, 324 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-022-01445-9. Link to PDF: https://rdcu.be/cZdWY

Eggert, G., Fischer, A. (2021): The formation of formates: a review of metal formates on heritage objects. Herit Sci 9, 26 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-021-00499-z

Shen, Y. Linnow, K. and Steiger, M.: Crystallization Behavior and Damage Potential of Na2SO4–NaCl Mixtures in Porous Building Materials: Cryst. Growth Des. 2020, 20, 9, 5974–5985, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.cgd.0c00671

Granneman, S.J.C.; Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.: Effect of mixed in crystallization modifiers on the resistance of lime mortar against NaCl and Na2SO4 crystallization. Construction and Building Materials , vol.194, S.62-70, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.11.006

Andreotti, S.; Franzoni, E.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Scherer, G.W.; Fabbri, P.; Sassoni, E.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.: New polymer-based treatments for the prevention of damage by salt crystallization in stone. Materials , 52 (17), Webadresse, https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-018-1309-6

Sögütoglu, L.; Steiger, M.; Houben, J.; Biemans, D.; Fischer, H.R.; Donkers, P.; Huinink, H.; and Adan, O.: Understanding the Hydration Process of Salts: The Impact of a Nucleation Barrier, Cryst. Growth Des., Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/acs.cgd.8b01908, Publication Date (Web): February 14, 2019, https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.cgd.8b01908

Vazquez, P.; Thomachot-Schneider, C.; Mouhoubi, K.; Bodnar, J-L.; Avdelidis, N. P.; Charles, D.; Benavente, D. Sodium sulfate crystallisation monitoring using IR Thermography (2018): Infrared Physics & Technology Volume 89, March 2018, Pages 231-241, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infrared.2018.01.011, http://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/handle/1826/12944


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